via Papua New Guinea
The currency of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is made up of Kina (keena) and toea (toya) with 100 toea equal to One Kina. The Kina was introduced on the 19th of April 1975. The Kina replaced the Australian Dollar and the toea replaced the Australian cent. Originally the Kina was issued at par with the Australian Dollar.
The Kina was so named because in Tok Pisin (neo-melanesian) and in the Kuanua language it referred to the valuable pearl shell used widely in the Highlands as traditional money. Toea, is a Motu word, meaning valuable arm-shell and has had a wide traditional use in coastal Papua for trading and brideprice payments.
During the colonial period and before the introduction of the Kina and Toea, the people of PNG used German Marks and Pfennings, Japanese Yen, Australian Pounds, Shillings and Pence and most recently up until the 19th of April 1975 Australian Dollars and cents.
On the 19th of April 1975 only the coins 1t, 2t, 5t, 10t, 20t and K1.00 were minted and the K2, K5 and K10 bank notes The K20 bank note was introduced in 1978, the K50 bank note in 1989 and in November 2005 the Bank of PNG introduced a K100 note. The 50 toea coin was introduced in 1980 for the 3rd South Pacific Festival of Arts held in Port Moresby. The 1 and 2 toea were minted in bronze, with the others in cupronickel.
Today the PNG currency consists of the following notes and coins in daily use with the 1 and 2 toea coins phased out in 2007. The 1 and 2 toea coins are increasingly harder to find as 99.99% have been returned to the bank and are no longer legal tender.
This is a worn K2 polymer note still in daily circulation
The K2 note is made from a plastic polymer and it eventually rots away like an old plastic bag. It is made by the Royal Australian Mint using the same process as the Australian Dollar notes. Here is a web site that deals with polymer notes -- http://www.polymernotes.org/country_pages/png.htm
This one is in good condition
COINS: K1, 50t, 20t, 10t, 5t, (2t and 1t - being phased out)
The One Kina coin has a hole in the middle. Unlike some other countries the single Kina has always been a coin and not a bank note Up until November 2005 the K1 coin measures 32.72 mm with central hole of 6.9 mm It now measures 30 mm The dimensions of the other coins are :
Coin 1st Issue Metal Type Weight Diameter Features (back) Withdrawn from
1 toea 1975 Bronze-Copper plated Zinc 2.07 grams 17.65 mm Birdwing Butterfly (Ornithoptera Paradis) 2007 2 toea 1975 Bronze-Copper plated Zinc 4.15 grams 21.72 mm Butterfly Cod (Pterois Volitans) 2007 5 toea 1975 Cupro Nickel 2.83 grams 19.53 mm Turtle (Carettochelys) 5 toea 1975 Nickel plated Steel 2.83 grams 19.53mm Turtle (Carettochelys) 10 toea 1975 Cupro Nickel 5.65 grams 23.72 mm Cuscus (Phalanger maculatus) 10 toea Nickel plated Steel 5.65 grams 23.72 mm Cuscus (Phalanger maculatus) 20 toea 1975 Cupro Nickel 11.30 grams 28.65 mm Cassowary (Casuarius Bennetti) 20 toea Nickel plated Steel 11.30 grams 28.65 mm Cassowary (Casuarius Bennetti) 1980
Cupro Nickel 13.50 grams 30.00 mm 1980 4th South Pacific Festival of Arts
1991 9th South Pacific Games
1998 Bank of PNG Silver Jubilee
50 toea 2008 Nickel plated Steel 13.50 grams 30.00 mm 23 Jun 2008 -- 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the Saint John Ambulance Services 50 toea 2008 Multi-ply Nickel plated Steel 12.10 grams 30.00 mm 2008 - Commemorative coin with coloured BPNG Logo using Royal Canadian Mint technology. 1975 Cupro Nickel 14.52 grams 32.72 mm Saltwater & freshwater crocodiles Withdrawn on the 31st of December 2008. K1.00 Nov
Nickel plated Steel 11.05 grams 33.00 mm Saltwater & freshwater crocodiles (6 mm hole in middle)
Saltwater (Crocodile Pororus) left hand side
Freshwater (Crocodile Novaequineae) right hand side
K1.00 2005 Nickel plated Steel 13.75 grams 30.00 mm Saltwater & freshwater crocodiles (6 mm hole in middle)
launched November 2005
Saltwater (Crocodile Pororus)
Freshwater (Crocodile Novaequineae)
Commemorative K5 and K10 mint coins have been produced and a Gold K100 coin exists but they are not in daily use. The fifty toea piece is also used on commemorative occasions and is used for normal street circulation. The bank notes, like the coins, feature the Papua New Guinea Crest.
Banknote Size Colour Material Introduced K 2.00 70 x 140 mm
75 x 149.5 mm
Dark Green on light green originally paper
April 1975 K 5.00 73 x 145 mm
72.5 x 145 mm
Dark violet and multicolour April 1975 K10.00 76 x 150.5
72.5 x 145 mm
blue and multicolour April 1975 K20.00 75 x 150 mm
Red and multicolour Paper 1978 K50.00 75.5 x 151 mm Orange background originally paper
1989 K100.00 75mm x 150mm Polymer made by Note Printing Australia, a subsidiary of the Central Bank of Australia November 2005 K100 75mm x 150mm Commemorative Note 15 Sep 2010
There are still traditional forms of money being used in PNG even today. One example is the Tabu Shell Money from East New Britain Province another is the Bagi from Milne Bay Province.
The K50 and K20 notes are displayed below
The first PNG polymer note was introduced in 1991).
Papua New Guinea introduced a polymer K50 note on the 16 June 1999. The K100 polymer note was introduced in November 2005
Twenty Kina notes (K20.00)
Fifty Kina notes (K50.00 pre-polymer)
If you want to know more about the currency of PNG the best site to visit is the Bank of PNG.
PNG Notes are made in a similar fashion to the video clip.